Types of Diabetes

Diabetes Type-1

What is type-1 diabetes?

It is a condition when insulin secretion process gets off, because of some disturbance in individual immune system due to many reasons , which destroys the “beta cell” of pancreas ; a gland located behind stomach which secrets Insulin. Mostly it happens under the age of 20, but can be at any age, 8-10% of total diabetic population is of type-1Diabetes,also known as juvenile Diabetes.



  • ◘ Excessive thirst
  • ◘ Increased number of urine
  • ◘ Weakness
  • ◘ Weight loss in gross.
  • ◘ Increased appetite
  • ◘ Itching/cuts in sex organs
  • ◘ Itching, skin infections
  • ◘ Nausea, abdominal discomfort or pain, and change in bowel movements may accompany acute DKA ( Diabetic Ketoacidosis)
  • ◘ Headaches
  • ◘ Leg cramps.

Risk factors

Some known risk factors for type 1 Diabetes include –

  • ◘ Family history – Plays important role in type-1 diabetes and important risk factor, presence of certain genes increases risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
  • ◘ The incidence of type 1 diabetes tends to increase in migrant families.
  • ◘ First peak occurs in since birth to four years, second peak between four to seven and third peak between ten to sixteen years.

Some other possible risk factors are –

  • ◘ Exposure to repeated viral infection, such as mumps virus and cytomegalovirus.
  • ◘ Early feeding of cow’s milk in spite of mother breast feed.
  • ◘ Deficiency of Vitamin D
  • ◘ Mother have preeclampsia during pregnancy
  • ◘ Being born with jaundice

Injectable Insulin is the first choice of treatment your doctor will decide the dose and regime as per the requirement.

Type -1 Diabetes emergency –

As this type of diabetes is found mostly in children and teens; so a team work between the patient parents and doctor is needful for better and long lasting control to avoid the diabetic complications (both short term and long term) in early stage.

There are two types of Short term complications or emergencies –

  • ◘ Hypoglycaemia ( low blood sugar level from normal)
  • ◘ Diabetic Ketoacidosis (constant high blood sugar )
Long term complications –
  • ◘ Diabetic Retinopathy (related to eye)
  • ◘ Diabetic Neuropathy (related to nerves)
  • ◘ Diabetic Nephropathy (related to kidneys)
  • ◘ Cardio-vascular disease (related to heart)

Long term complications come usually after 10 years of diabetic life. Kindly see the details in complication chapter.